The Nuttery : Volume 19 Number 3 (2000)

In this Issue...

Announcements: Read about the events coming our way for Winter Meeting 2001, a new editor takes over (somewhat nervously!), everyone is asked to become a Friend of a Nut Grove, Hank calls for help for Ontario butternuts.

Projects: Work continues on Oak Valley, John Sankey is now an official volunteer with the NCC, we have a busy ECSONG path through Moe Anderson's oak plantations, research reports on five of the plantations are up on ECSONG's Web site, and we have a whole classroom full of new nut growers at Blossom Park Public School.

For Growers: John Sankey describes his back yard experiences with squirrels and bear oak.

General News: Peter Satterly spots a disturbing tax on walnuts, Eastern Ontario AgriNews features nut growing.

Membership: We welcome the following who joined since the last issue:
John Adams, Kemptville 258-7995
Marshall & Doris Crowe, Portland 272-2561
Daniel Mayo, Carp 836-6076
André Séguin, Spencerville 658-5171
Larry & Anstace Esmonde-White, Kemptville 258-5587, were left off the last list in error - they have been members for some time.

And, Hank & Vera have a new phone number - 231-4224.

ECSONG Winter Meeting

The upcoming ECSONG Winter Meeting is free and open to the public - so bring your family, friends and neighbours!

A major feature of the meeting is the Children's Activity Program, welcoming kids of all ages. The indoor activities will all revolve around the growing of nuts and nut trees, and the use of nuts by both people and wildlife. Everything the kids will need will be supplied - so just bring your kids, grandkids, or rent-a-kids!

There will be Exhibits of various kinds offering information, services, supplies and stock. If you would like to exhibit your wares, book your free booth today by calling the ECSONG Secretary, Vera Hrebacka at (613) 231-4224.

If you enjoy preparing nutty treats, bring samples of your nut cuisine for the winter meeting's Bake Sale Fund Raiser - coffee and juice will be supplied - call Vera for details.

Check in at the Registration Table for a Name Tag, and see Treasurer Art Read to pay your Year 2001 dues (now $20/year).

We will have six stimulating Presentations by members and colleagues on topics such as nut grove planning, local support services to growers, and including a panel discussion involving the leaders of our six nut groves on the matter of the brand-new 'Friends of ECSONG Nut Groves' initiative.

The Winter Meeting is free of charge, and open to the public!

For more information, contact Vera 613-231-4224 or vera@veratika.com

A New Editor for the Nuttery
John Sankey

Hank Jones has been Editor of the Nuttery since 1987, almost its entire existence. He has imbued it throughout with a matchless energy and enthusiasm, even though he has also been our President for almost half that time. But, time marches on, and Hank has to reduce his workload a bit. So, I've agreed to take over the job, so that Hank can concentrate his efforts on persuading everyone in the world to grow nut trees.

I know I speak for all of us when I tell Hank that his contributions to ECSONG as editor have held us together and focussed our efforts as few others could have done. Don't expect me to match his record - I can't possibly. But, I'll do the best I can.

I will always appreciate suggestions to improve the usefulness of the Nuttery, by email, Canada Post, or by phone.

Time Marches On
Hank Jones

My interest in nut growing for Canada began with the founding of the Ottawa Area Chapter of the Society of Ontario Growers in 1978, by Filmore R. Park and Alec C. Jones. It has grown steadily over these twenty years, as the Chapter grew in membership, diversity, variety. I have had the privilege and honour of being the Chairman of ECSONG several times, and the Editor of The Nuttery for over a decade.

My vision for ECSONG has always been to help it make nut growing a goal for every resident in the region with a patch of ground at least large enough for a few hazel shrubs. Anyone living in ruralia, suburbia, and even many city-dwellers, qualify! Nut bearing plants should have their share of both public and private growing sites. I believe that high quality research and development could yield many new varieties and cultivars of new kinds of nut species now underutilized. I also believe that Eastern Ontario, stimulated by ECSONG, could become the hub of such work for most of Canada. With such new stock in hand, nut growing could become commonplace and profitable almost everywhere in Canada. Even near-polar nut growing could become possible!

I have encouraged ECSONG's development of public nut groves, because I believe the nut grove is the best tool for raising public awareness, proving feasibility and training future growers. Today ECSONG co-manages four such groves in the region, namely: Filmore R. Park Nut Grove; Oak Valley Nut Grove; Dolman Ridge Nut Grove; and the nut trees of Canada's Dominion Arboretum. With the finessing of their on-site nurseries and a ramping up of their spring and fall fields, these groves are now poised to deliver to the public! The Year 2001, considered by many the first year of the new century and of the new millenium, could be the year the groves burst onto the public stage. I believe Canadians are ready to undertake nut growing, and thus to create a new natural resource for Canada!

This is my vision for ECSONG. I am pleased to have had the opportunity to bring ECSONG to this point, poised to make 'nutting' a household word. As I wind down my involvement in ECSONG, I hope the next generation of ECSONGers will be able fully engage the public in our beautiful and functional nut groves. The next twenty years could be even more exciting and productive than the first twenty!

Be a Friend of a Nut Grove
Hank Jones

For new ECSONG members, and for some old ones as well, getting to know one another is not all that easy. After all, as an organization we are scattered all over the Eastern Ontario region, and even beyond. There are just two meetings a year (the AGM and the Winter Meeting).

However, our six public nut groves together host at least eight field days a year, and the number is growing. These get-togethers are our best chance to meet one another, and personally benefit from ECSONG membership. And our nut groves are ECSONG's front lines to the public and the press.

The ECSONG Board of Directors has decided to ask each member to register personal support for the grove of his or her choice, and provide support in any form as best suits individual needs, interests, abilities and opportunities. The Board believes this is an excellent way for us to be meeting one another. This initiative is called 'Friends of ... Nut Grove' - insert the name of your chosen nut grove.

For each of us, there is a nut grove not too far away from home. The Lavant Shagbark Nut Grove is in north western Lanark County. The Oak Valley Nut Grove is just west of Winchester Springs. The Dolman Ridge Nut Grove is beside the Mer Bleu in Ottawa. The Dominion Arboretum Nut Grove is in the heart of the nation's capital. The Bear Oak Nut Grove is near Tamworth. And the Fillmore R. Park Nut Grove is in the vicinity of Kemptville.

Get the full details and an opportunity to sign on at the upcoming Winter Meeting 2001 on Saturday, January 24, 2001.

Personally, I am choosing the Dolman Ridge Nut Grove to start!

Butternut trees need your help!
Hank Jones

I call your attention to the excellent lead article in the September issue of the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Forestry Forum entitled 'Butternut trees need your help!', by Mark Richardson, Project Forester, EOMF. It mentions, inter alia, the Forest Gene Conservation Association (FGCA, of which ECSONG is a member) and ECSONG (an EOMF Partner) work on this matter.

I spoke to Mark about his project, which includes efforts in both butternut tree growing and the development of a 'conservation strategy and recovery plan' for the species. Mark suggests that these efforts could be carried out by a Working Group of landowners, conservationists and scientists.

I explained to Mark the details some of the work that ECSONG has done with Butternut over the years, such as the Eastern Ontario Butternut Archive at Oak Valley with grafted trees (Peter Carr et al), nut seed collecting by various members, and will be doing soon at Dolman Ridge with special butternut seed (John Sankey et al). These are just a few of the many efforts we have made over the years.

Mark is discouraged by the lack of response from the public, and his proposal is stalled. In my view, if ECSONG has in its ranks a member who might take the lead and help get this Working Group off the ground, we should volunteer to do so!

I would like your comments and suggestions about this matter. Phone me at 567-8472. Time is of the essence!

An Apology

Roman Popadiouk landed a job in Timmins in early October, so was not here to lead the advertised tour of the Dominion Arboretum of 14 October. We are all delighted for Roman's sake, but unfortunately, the tour slipped through the cracks of ECSONG, and no one was there to replace him as tour leader.

Our apologies to those members who showed up - we'll try to do better next time!

Blossom Park Kids Go Nuts!
Hank Jones

Friday, May 19, 2000 was a big day for ECSONG's Dolman Ridge Nut Grove and the Grade 4 Students of Blossom Park Public School! Here's what happened.

Back on March 10, 2000, I brought a hundred black walnut seeds to the school. I met with Julie Morris (Vice-Principal), Sarah Ashton, Jane Neely, Sandy Stewart and the Class to launch the Black Walnut Project. The Students will learn about nuts and trees by stratifying and germinating the black walnut seeds, planting the nutlings in special growboxes at the Dolman Ridge Nut Grove, and watching these little trees grow over the coming years. The nuts that had already germinated were planted in 2 liter pop bottles, one nut per bottle. The rest went into the fridge to complete stratification. Later, students Steven, Yusif Ali, Ebian, David McCall, Samantha Ann Wells, Sarah, Travis, Meagan, and Selmaan, sent ECSONG excellent letters and beautiful drawings about the nut trees and their project.

In preparation for the arrival of the nutlings at the Dolman Ridge Nut Grove (near Mer Bleu, on public land administered by the National Capital Commission), John Sankey and Larry Wade installed two Cobjon Nutling Growboxes. Then on May 19th, everybody arrived!

There was Ifrah, Hassan, Ebian, Yusuf, Steven, Meagan, Asma, Jeremy, Travis, Andrew, Abdulrahman, James, Jenna, David, Brandon, Laura, Sarah, Selmaan, Nadine, Samantha R., Adam, Justin, Samantha W., Jessica, Timour, Neal, Marc, Allison, Jodi, and Charlotte. Julie Morris, Carolyn Donnelly and Sarah Ashton lead the Parade through the Poison Ivy to the planting site (nobody got poison ivy!).

Hank welcomed everyone, and introduced Roman Popadiouk and Ted Cormier. We split into three groups, to learn more about nut trees. Then the groups rotated through three learning sessions. Hank's session discussed "What Tree is this?", identifying the nearby trees. Roman's session discussed "Why Nut Trees are Important". In Ted's session on "Lets Plant Your Black Walnut Seeds and Nutlings", the students planted the nuts and nutlings in the growboxes.

It was a wonderful day! Remember, come back next spring to see your little trees. Then in 2002, we will transplant the nutlings into the final homes - maybe some at your house and the rest at the nut grove?

Next spring, why don't we all go the Filmore R. Park Nut Grove in the Baxter Conservation Area for a Nature Tour, a visit to the Nut Grove and a Picnic? ECSONG is ready! What about you?

Oak Valley 2000
Peter Carr

This year there were two field days in the Spring, two picnics in the summer, a field day in the Fall and an educational session with a class of grade 5 kids.

Early in the Spring Kim McInnis ordered a load of topsoil to develop her planned flower garden. Throughout the Spring and the Summer Kim and Lester worked hard clearing out brush and stumps from two old foundation sites that were to form the walls of their garden. Soon a whole range of colourful flowers were growing in one of these sites and flower beds were extended around some of the monument stones and on the north side of the nursery. Lester then built a log fence along one side of the flower bed where there was an abrupt change in elevation. As a result of all this activity the aesthetics of the plantation has been greatly improved.

Another major achievement occurring this Spring was a significant increase in donated seedlings which will greatly increase the diversity of the of the plantation Seven four-year old ginkgo trees were donated by Brian Henderson and have been planted along the western edge of the property and are doing well.

Kurt Wasner contributed two bur oaks approximately 8 feet high, to replace the two dead trees that were situated on either side of the laneway between the memorial boulders. Ted Cormier provided a great variety of nuts and trees for planting including beaked hazels, red oak, American hazelnut and white swamp oak. Also George Truscott provide seedlings of shagbark hickories, bur oak, English oak, Kentucky coffee trees, some butternuts and chestnuts. As a result of all these generous contributions many of the empty spaces are being filled in and the diversity is being greatly increased.

Another activity of interest was in the Spring. Saun Funk rented a chipper for a field day and he and Rob Saunders worked very hard on a very hot day chipping a huge pile of Manitoba maples that had been cut down several years ago and were being overgrown with vines. One lesson learned was that in future a much bigger chipper is needed.

During the summer the first picnic was held at the end of July. This was the annual picnic for the staff and Board members of the South Nation Conservation Authority (SNC), as a result only a few ECSONG members attended. Prior to the picnic the plantation site was cleared of all the excess metal and wood debris. The grass was cut and whippersnipped around the memorial stones. All this work was done by SNC staff. They applied several days of sustained effort to get the plantation in tip top shape. It certainly looked superb. A large opened sided tent was rented for the occasion which was the focal point for the picnic. The weather cooperated and SNC had a very successful picnic.

Having learned what was involved with making a successful picnic, Josée Brizard, SNC's Oak Valley coordinator was determined to repeat the success in August. This time the picnic was dedicated to the families that had purchased bronze plaques for the monument boulders and for those who had supported the plantation over the years. A similar tent was rented with ECSONG paying for some of the cost. About 46 people attended the picnic on a beautiful day in August. A new sign for the Heritage Site was installed at the entrance. It was unveiled by Myrtle McKendry and Hank Jones made a speech about the club's activities. Then we retired to the tent and Pat Coyne a local historian gave a very interesting talk describing the life of the pioneers who settled the region. After lunch tours of the plantation were given by Ted Cormier and Hank Jones.

Our Fall field day was planned for a Saturday but had to be deferred to Sunday due to the bad weather. The main effort was to cut down pine trees that were severely crowding the nut trees. This effort was led by John Sankey and George Truscott with their chain saws. A clean up crew followed behind them. The pine trees have been so successful that it was absolutely necessary to thin some out if some of the hardwoods are to survive, this action will have little or no adverse affect upon the aesthetics of the plantation

In the fall, an educational program was held once again using monies from the Ralph McKendry fund dedicated for this purpose. This year Rob Saunders' class of Grade 5 from South Mountain school were the beneficiaries. Ed Kupchek, a forester of the SNC staff visited the school and talked to the kids about trees and how they grow. Ted Cormier had once again supplied a large variety of nuts for planting. So when the kids arrived at the plantation by school bus they were extremely eager to do some planting. Until now we had only been using half the nursery, however trenches were quickly dug in the remaining space and the nuts were quickly planted. Now the nursery is full. Hopefully some of the older stock will be sold next Spring to raise money to help pay for the grass cutting..

Throughout the growing season the extended Baldwin family ensured that the grass was cut, and many other people not mentioned here worked hard doing the usual maintenance work to help keep the plantation going. To all of you, many thanks for an exciting year at Oak Valley. Your efforts made it all possible.

Notes from the Dolman Ridge
John Sankey

Management of the Dolman ridge plantations has two objectives. The ECSONG objective is to research and demonstrate useful aspects of growing nut trees. The NCC objective there is to preserve biodiversity within a natural setting, with minimal overt management.

There are few examples of pure oak plantations in this area, so it would be useful information to determine the growth response of these trees at various spacings for timber production. Most of the area about the ridge was farmland until the 1960's, so there are few areas there with high closed canopy woods. Moe Anderson's red oaks are such an area, so it is a useful contribution to the biodiversity of the ridge to maintain this habitat. Varying the spacings of the trees will increase the variety of this type of habitat available for other species. So, a moderate thinning of the plantation with the aim of producing a variety of tree spacings has merit under both objectives.

With the assistance of Chris Cummins, Moe Anderson, Roman Popadiouk, Mike Rosen and his Stewardship Rangers, the location of each tree was measured on an x-y grid, along with it's DBH. The effective growing area of a tree was calculated from the spacings and a desired (target) area mix was chosen to improve the variation of spacing. The trees that should be removed so as to best fit the target spacing with the removal of the fewest trees were then identified. The final selection of trees to remove was done with this ranking in hand, but mostly looking at the quality of growth of the selected trees. No tree of greater than the mean DBH was removed unless it had a serious structural flaw. 34 trees were removed in total. The result has been a significant increase in the number of trees with about 5 m2 of growing space.

All the material has been left on the forest floor to decompose into food for the survivors, and habitat for tree frogs and other neat creatures that make up a healthy forest. In one area, the branches have been piled up for a brush pile, in another logs have been piled up - each will increase the biodiversity of the forest biome. (In fact, a yellowthroat was checking out the brush pile even before it was completed!)

Among the 34 removed were 4 healthy trees of DBH between 15 and 17 cm. Growth ring measurements were done on these, and on one larger tree of which a core sample had been taken earlier in the year. The growth of these trees does not yet show any sign of limitation by growing area, nor does a correlation of size with growing space, so further thinning will not be required for some time.

The maps and data have been deposited in the ECSONG library, and you can see photos and a colour map of the plantation on the ECSONG web site. Every 10 years or so, we should remeasure the DBH's. In 10-20 years, the trees at the closest spacings should begin to show some slowing of growth and we will have some very useful data on the timber productivity of red oak plantations in our area.

Meanwhile, the Dolman Ridge nurseries are bursting at the seams with hope for the coming years. With the assistance of Roman Popadiouk and Larry Wade, there are now four growboxes installed in the field northeast of the intersection of Anderson and Dolman roads. I've put four more in my back yard.

Two are full of black walnut seedlings planted by the students of Blossom Park School this spring. The others are crammed with 104 bear oak acorns collected from Tamworth by Michael Keeling, 193 English oak and 316 pin oak collected from the Arboretum by George Truscott, 296 black oak collected by Ted Cormier, 55 white oak and 55 American chestnut collected from Dolman Ridge by John Sankey, and 73 possibly blight- resistant butternuts sent from Osceola WI by Sharon Johnson.

The Dolman Ridge is a conservation area, so all have been planted as a squirrel would, outdoors in the fall, to select those adapted to our local natural environment.

Peter Carr and George Truscott helped to clear a space west of the red oak plantation on the ridge for future oak seedlings. Sheila Carr, Galina Ponomarenko, Khristina Popadiouk and Larry Wade installed tar paper vole shields around the lowland white oaks that have a young primary shoot. The usual plastic shields wouldn't work, since these shoots are from 30-year-old roots of very irregular shape. It took time and patience! Now we'll have to wait to see if they work. Squirrels may be smarter than voles, but there are a lot more voles!

Mike Rosen continues to attract visitors to the Dolman Ridge plantations - on 30 Oct. I welcomed the Environmental Studies class of Jason Smith, Colonel By Secondary School, who visited the white oak grove for an afternoon of pruning instruction and an introduction to nut trees.

Predation of squirrels on an isolated red oak tree
John Sankey

The only nut-producing tree on my block is a red oak in my back yard. I planted it as a 6-year whip when I moved here, and it is now 20 years old, 18 cm DBH. It has been setting seed for 5 years. As a rough estimate, it had 1000 twigs by mid-June 2000, each with an average of 10 leaves and 8 acorn buds - 8000 potential acorns.

But, in urbia, grey/black squirrels command nut trees - I have never harvested a single mature acorn from the tree or found a single oak seedling!

The predation starts in mid June, when the acorns are almost nothing but cap - they eat the stem about 2 mm each side of the junction of the acorn with the twig, dropping the rest on the ground. By early July, they start nipping off whole twigs - about 150 in total this year - apparently to eat a section of the stem there. By mid July, they shift to biting acorns in half, and eating the kernels. By August, the acorns are swollen to almost full size, but there are only about 1000 left. By late August, there is not a single acorn left on the tree.

Well, I want to start growing oak seedlings here to extend the Dolman Ridge Plantations with new species, and they wouldn't last long with such predation. I had heard that removing squirrels was about like draining a lake with a spoon, but had never tried it. So, early this August, I built a cage trap.

I had four regular visitors, who moved in to sample my offering of fresh peanut butter placed in the sun in strict dominance order as fast as I could transport them and reset the trap - they were used to each others' smells. The dominant female glared at me from the trap, as if to say, "how dare you interfere with my kingdom", the next two were agitated in captivity, and the 4th was squeaking in fear - he was obviously used to getting hurt when cornered.

The flow of disassembled acorns to the lawn increased. Two new squirrels were celebrating their good fortune - and making up for lost time. Being on strange territory, they stayed away from the trap, with it's smell of their predecessors, until they had been in residence for a week or so and felt confident. By that time, they had consumed more acorns than the original residents would have. By the time I had moved 9 squirrels, there were no more acorns left on my tree.

I discovered a dozen probably-viable acorns buried in my seed bed, all neatly placed horizontally, their own diameter deep. All the rest appear to have been eaten on the spot.

I've put the cage trap away, and built some growboxes!

A small experience with Bear Oak
John Sankey

At the winter meeting 1999, Hank gave me 16 acorns collected from Bear Oak (Quercus illicifolia)in the Tamworth area. Most were already sprouting, but I have no suitable indoor planting area, so put them in the frig to hold until the ground was unfrozen in my back yard. In mid-April, I planted them, their own diameter deep. Within a week, several were already breaking ground! By early May, 15 of the 16 were showing green and several were 15 cm tall - far too fast growth.

Well, this is Ottawa, not Tamworth - a frost hit mid-May while I was out of town, and when I came back it looked as though all but two had been killed. These two had a compact near-rosette of leaves only 2 cm high at the time. Of course, I kept them all weeded and watered, and by mid-June, five of the 'goners' were struggling to put out a new terminal leaf or two. But, to no avail - only the two survived the winter.

One settled on four leaves for the year 2000, the other five in May, plus three in July.

The Tamworth oaks did not set viable seed in 1999, but Michael Keeling of the International Oak Society collected me a hundred this year. He recommends acid soil to avoid chlorosis, so they have been planted in a growbox with flowers of sulphur added to bring the pH a bit below 6.

Hopefully, the next article will be titled 'A bigger experience with Bear Oak' !

Note from the Internet: Walnut Marketing

Peter Satterly just spotted a US Federal Register Order to authorize The California Walnut Marketing Board to up its tax rate by 13%, to $0.0134 per kernelweight pound.

A few clicks on links showed that the Board was established in 1933. It administers a US marketing order which regulates the handling of walnuts grown in California, and is authorized to tax walnut handlers to pay its expenses. Walnuts in California are a sizeable business - 193,000 acres produce 21,000 tons of walnut meats there. So, the Board has the right to collect about $560,000 US this year.

Can it happen here? It certainly can. Under the Ontario Farm Products Marketing Act (search at http://209.195.107.57/en/index.html), a marketing board can be established whenever the Ontario Farm Products Marketing Commission receives a request for one from a group of producers and the Commission decides that the group of producers "is representative of the persons engaged in the production of the farm product". Once a board is established, no one is allowed to to have anything to do with that product except under a license issued by a board.

Hmm - do we really want to be that successful at nut growing?

AgriFocus on Nuts!

George Truscott and Peter Carr were featured in full colour in the November 2000 issue of Eastern Ontario AgriNews Interactive. The full length article proposed that Canada could become a nut-growing nation by encouraging people to plant nut trees and shrubs on unused property. The landowner would be paid in cash or in processed crop that would be gathered by a network of collectors.

Agrinews quotes ECSONG president Hank Jones' prediction that a harvest of million pounds of nuts a year could be obtained in Eastern Ontario just by planting on marginal land and along farm roads. This could be worth $15 million a year if they were pine nuts. Red oaks produce better quality oil than olive trees, and the shells can be even more valuable than the nut meats, as a grit for use as a metal polish and for the cleaning of bronze statutes, and for preparing aircraft aluminum for painting.

Ted Cormier is quoted too, with regard to the potential of developing hardier varieties whose nuts are easier to crack.

A great article. Congratulations, George, Peter, Hank & Ted!

ECSONG helps Nova Scotian Hazel Grower
Hank Jones

In a recent issue of Eco Farm & Garden (V.3 No. 4 - Fall 2000), "Canada's National Organic Magazine", there is an exciting article entitled "Nuts about Hazels" by Jennifer Scott (pp. 12 - 15). Jennifer lives on a certified organic farm and is developing a Genuine Progress Index for Agriculture in Nova Scotia. In her spare time she farms, grows nuts, goes nuts, does certification inspections and is on the REAP-Canada board. (REAP is Resource Efficient Agricultural Production).

In her article, Jennifer talks about her success growing hazelnuts at her Minas Basin location, and how she came to be a grower. She also grows many other kinds of nuts, though she believes commercial production outside the Okanagan Valley, B.C. or the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, would be risky, home production would be possible almost anywhere apples can grow. In my view, with high quality R&D and persistence, the development of new varieties on a greater range of species, and subsequent wide scale planting on marginal and some urban lands across the country, Canada could become a notable commercial nut producing nation within 20 years. The genetics are there, waiting for us to get to work!

Jennifer has talked to many nut growers around the country over the years, including Peter Henningsen and John Wilson in Nova Scotia; and Ernie Grimo and Doug Campbell in Niagara. She notes recommendations for the venerable Gellatly varieties that were developed in the early twentieth century on the Gellatly Nut Farm in Westbank, B.C., as suited to Nova Scotia.

Most importantly for ECSONG readers, Jennifer cites our 'Nut Growers Manual For Eastern Ontario' as an authority for site determination and preparation. She also lists our website and The Nuttery as important resources for information.

Jennifer's article makes good reading for novice as well as experienced nut growers anywhere in Canada. Do not miss this excellent read! And our thanks to Jennifer.

In the next issue ...

The Annual General Meeting of ECSONG is on 17 March 2001 at the Baxter Conservation Area. ECSONG has been asked to help plan and plant a nut grove at Rideau Hall, the official residence of Canada's Governors-General. Murray Inch is working on a formal MOU with the South Nation Conservation Authority for the Oak Valley Nut Grove. There is hope on two fronts that the American Chestnut can be restored to its former glory for our grandchildren. And, of course, Spring Field Days are just around the corner for our nut groves.

Keep in touch.

Provided by ECSONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.