In this Issue...
This issue of the Nuttery is by far the biggest we have ever published. There has been a surge in nut-growing interest in Ontario in 1989, so that the decade of the nineties could see wide-spread planting of nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs begin.
There have been several main signals. The September Nut Tree Tour of Eastern Ontario, co- hosted by the OMNR and OMAF, reported in this issue, expresses the provincial government's increasing interest in nuts. Likewise, the personal invitations to our members to the November Conference entitled Healthy Forests - Our Challenge, reported by Irene Woolford, is yet another signal from our provincial government.
The paper by Hank Jones and Howard Edel on seed banking for the future, published in its entirety in this issue, is a quantum leap in the promoting of nut growing in Ontario. Likewise the futures article by Alec Jones proposes the broad implementation of the policy for future development adopted by the Ottawa Chapter of SONG early in 1989. The first North American Conference on Agroforestry, also reported on in this issue, attracted some 10 papers on nut growing. And for Eastern Ontario, we are seeing the beginnings of nut commerce, as demonstrated in the Nuttery Marketplace section.
The Winter Meeting
The Ottawa Area Chapter of the Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) will hold its 1989/90 Winter Meeting Thursday, January 18, 1990 at The Citizen building, 1101 Baxter Rd., Ottawa. Registration starts at 7:30 PM. Refreshments will be served. Bring your favourite nut dishes. Bring seed, tools, products for the exhibit and seed exchange. And, bring your family and friends.
Winter meetings are traditionally a time to reflect on the past year's accomplishments and to plan for the upcoming growing season. This year's meeting is no exception. Several speakers are planned to help stimulate and focus the open discussions characteristic of our winter meetings. Mark Schaefer will be reviewing last year's exciting developments in his Korean Nut Pine plantation - his trees bore cones for the first time! Howard Edel will overview a paper he and Hank Jones authored which proposes to the Ontario government that a new program be started to grow acclimatised seed from nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs across the province. This far- reaching proposal addresses the greenhouse effect and its threat to the health of today's Ontario trees and forests. It is printed in its entirety in this issue to give you a chance to read it ahead of time.
A seed exchange table will be open, so bring along any seed you wish to exchange. If you have any special presentation materials, tools, wooden ware, implements etc. of interest to nut growers, bring them along for the meeting's exhibits display. Prepare your favourite nut dish and bring it along for the meeting's food fair. As always, Treasurer Art Read will be keen to sign up new members and to collect dues for the new year. Bring along family and friends. See you at the Winter Meeting!
Local Korean Nut Pines
Mark Schaefer has been encouraging a number of Korean Nut Pines (Pinus koraiensis) in the vicinity of the Mer Bleue Peat Bog, Ontario, and this past summer they had several cones. On the one hand this is exciting news, raising the possibility of local seed for propagation. On the other hand, the news is disturbing because this species should not be bearing until 30-35 years of age, and these particular trees are many years shy. This situation usually indicates the trees are under stress, and their health may be in jeopardy. We'll keep our fingers crossed for the 1990 growing season that all turns out well. Mark reports that the cones are now opening.
Shagbark Hickory in the NCR
Moe Anderson says that there used to be a shagbark hickory stand growing along the Ottawa River shore on the Quebec side of the des Chênes rapids opposite the Britannia Filtration Plant, and it may still be there. If so, this would be a valuable addition to the Chapter's Inventree, the list of sites in the region where viable nut or bean bearing trees or shrubs have been spotted. These sites can be important sources of acclimatised seed or cuttings suitable for further propagation.
The area Moe described, found along the Boulevard Lucerne at Chemin Vanier, is now residential, called Des Chênes. This area can be easily seen on a Ottawa/Hull street map. Turn into the area on the main street called Principale, towards the river. Go to the last cross street (now Brébeouf) and turn right. Find a small road to the left leading towards the shore, a place Moe calls Hickory Point. If luck is with us, the shagbark hickory stand is still there. If you have a chance to check this out, please let the Nuttery know what you find, good news or bad! If you need blank Inventree site cards, the Nuttery office has a supply.
The Siberian Connection
As you may have heard, glasnost and peristrioka are bearing fruit for the nut growers. For about 2 years now, we have been negotiating with Mr. K.I Koshelev of Abakan, USSR, through Trevor Cole, the curator of Canada's Dominion Arboretum, for the exchange of nut seed. Mr. Koshelev has recently sent us a list of the Canadian species he wants, as well as a list of the Asian seed he has available. Permits authorising the shipping of seed have been issued. We are now considering quantities in the range of one to many kilograms of each available species per shipment. For more information about the Siberian Connection, call Alec Jones, Ottawa 828-6459, or the Nuttery Editor.
Whither Nut Growing in Eastern Ontario - Part 2
In the first part of this review, it was proposed that three lines of development should be followed. [This part was published as a separate paper - a copy has not yet been found.] It was envisaged that each development line would be the subject of a program prepared and steered by a coordinating committee. Growers could join one or more programs, limited only by their interests, the time they had, and access to appropriate facilities. The coordinating committees would be formed by the growers in each program.
Program A. This program would be the study of likely species, their establishment in this region, and the optimization of propagation and cultivation. This work could be done by interested gardeners, as only small garden spaces are needed. Substantial progress has already been made with some species out of the 77 listed for the Baxter Nut Grove, derived mainly from experience at the Dominion Arboretum over the past century. The information derived from work on ten of these species has been incorporated into the Chapter's Nut Growers Manual for Eastern Ontario. More work is indicated on these same 10 species, which should lead to the publishing of a 2nd edition of the manual. Work on other species is in hand and should be extended. As soon as sufficient knowledge is available, a 2nd volume of the Manual should be prepared.
Program B. In this program, the commercial exploitation of Program A knowledge is realised in the development of orchards of selected species. Growers with a half acre or more could contribute directly to this program: those interested should be taking active interest in the work going on at the Baxter Nut Grove and the Oak Valley Plantation. Further study is needed to select the best spacing, proper care and maintenance procedures and schedules, harvesting and marketing systems. This has to be backed up by studies of seed sources and planting stock. A nursery program may be needed. Looking at long term needs, basic work could also be devoted to large scale plantation applications.
Program C. The third line of development will lead into sustainable ecological agriculture, where nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs are integrated in the food producing systems, adding significantly to the total food and fiber yield in ways that do not compete for land with annual crops. Doing this calls partly for new and improved methodology, and largely for exploiting the tree's capability for growing where conditions do not favour conventional agriculture. This development line would probably exploit a mix of species and an expertise developed in Programs A and B. It would also call upon permaculture design, a young technology itself growing rapidly. It is the design of land use systems that are sustainable and environmentally sound, characterised by integrated application of ecological principles. It takes account of today's need to preserve wildlife habitat and the genetic diversity of wild and domestic plants and animals. Our planning in this area, to be realistic for trees, must recognise the probable long term results of climate warming. The greater part of this work will be theoretical and academic, and will involve joint discussions with other agencies concerned with agriculture and forestry. Practical experiments will probably involve fairly large areas and various topographies. There will be a role for any interested growers, but field work may be practical only for those with large acreages.
Nut Tree Tour of Eastern Ontario
The Chapter's annual fall field day was arranged this year jointly by the OMAF and OMNR. The day was called Eastern Ontario Nut Tree Tour, and what a tour it was! This was the first time anyone but ourselves arranged a Chapter meeting. It proved a red-letter day for us, as Chapter secretary Irene Woolford's report shows:
A most unpromising day turned into a winner and the rain and high winds tailing Hurricane Hugo let up around 9:30 AM. Over 40 of us were taken on a large, roomy intercity bus on a seven-stop tour stretching from Kemptville all the way to the St. Lawrence Islands National Park on Hill Island. We inspected tree farms and woodlots as young as 15 years to over 187 years old. We saw magnificent maples with girths of 27" and oaks with enormous lateral branches; heard about wild turkeys, deer, maple syrup production; and were given a wealth of information enroute by Clarence Coons, tour coordinator, and Dave Chapeskie, management forester from OMNR Brockville. We were also fortunate to have with us Brian Barkley, Regional Forester for Eastern Ontario and Nut Tree Specialist John Gardner from OMAF's London office. We also met Ross Cholmondeley in the national park to talk about nut trees and wildlife. To round out our information, we were each given an inch-thick package of 18 pithy technical papers dealing directly with nut growing, and a summary of each site we were to visit. This literature is now safely ensconced in the Chapter Library.
At each site, we were shown around, given a briefing and had our questions clearly and concisely answered. We were graciously entertained by the Beaudettes of Edwardsburgh Township, invited into their house and given coffee and doughnuts. It was a cold day, so our thanks go to the Beaudettes for their hospitality.
We had lunch at the nearby Drummond Sugar Bush, which has been in continuous operation since 1802. The effects of clear cutting, hurricanes and stand thinning were mentioned, as well as the fact that nut tree species were a valuable wood that was overlooked by Canadians> Some manufacturers were importing their lumber from the US because it was now unavailable here.
Last but not least were the refreshments generously supplied by the ministries and the facilities at the Beaudettes and the Drummonds. An altogether memorable day - now to find the time to read that stack of papers...
The Nuttery, on behalf of the Chapter, deeply thanks the Ontario government and its knowledgeable staff for showing such a strong interest in nut growing in eastern Ontario, and hopes that together we can foster a widening collaboration and commitment in the months and years to come.
What's a tree worth? You'd be surprised!
At the Healthy Forests - Our Challenge Conference held in Kemptville Ontario on December 2, 1989, a paper of this title was handed out. It shows that trees, even walnuts, have an environmental value far beyond the commercial worth of their wood. Here it is, verbatim, with the Nuttery Editor's comments in parentheses:
To a lumber buyer, a defect-free walnut growing in prime condition might be worth $800 or more (in Ontario, instances of thousands of dollars have been reported), depending on its intended use. But to Professor T.M. Das of the University of Calcutta, India, who studies environmental economics, that same tree has an economic value far greater than its lumber, wherever it grows.
Dr. Das reports that an ordinary tree is worth an amazing $196,250! Here's why: Based on the average tree's 50-year life span (our North American walnuts, hickories and oaks can live much longer, from 150 to 500 years), it will generate $31,250 in oxygen, provide air pollution control equal to $62,500, stem erosion and enrich the soil to the tune of $31,250, play a $37,500 role in recycling water, and shelter wildlife at a value of another $31,250.
All that, and the professor didn't even place a price tag on lumber, harvestable fruits and nuts (walnut kernels sell for about $30/kg), or aesthetic beauty. (In a forest, the trees also have a high wildlife habitat value.)
Future Forest Health Conference
On December 2, 1989, an all-day conference entitled Health Forests - Our Challenge was held in the gymnasium of the North Grenville High School in Kemptville. The membership of the Ottawa Chapter of SONG each received a personal invitation from the sponsors, namely the Ontario Forestry Association (OFA), the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF), the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), and Domtar Inc. At least a dozen of our members attended, to hear from 12 or so speakers on a range of topics related to growing healthy trees. The emphasis was on trees in woodlots, but clearly some of the advice applies equally to trees in plantations, groves and even forests.
There was some data presented that showed evidence of forest decline in Ontario, even over only 2-3 years measure, probably attributable to acid rain. There was also reference to the longer term problem of significant climate change due to air pollution affecting a greenhouse effect. Clearly there is reason to be concerned about the future health of trees and forests in Ontario, and mitigation action may be already warranted.
Alec Jones has subsequently written to Jim Coats, Executive Vice-President of OFA, thanking the organization for holding the Conference and encouraging OFA to "develop a more visible presence in eastern Ontario". He also enclosed a copy of the Ottawa Chapter's new proposal encouraging the planting of acclimatised seed banks emphasising the more southerly nut and bean bearing trees as a contingency against the predicted climate warming.
As a result of this conference, Alec reports that he was reminded of an initiative he attempted back in 1983 with OMNR to get their support for forming a Woodlot Owners Association in Eastern Ontario. He has decided to reintroduce this initiative. Consideration could be given to the role of nut trees in woodlots if he is successful in seeing an association formed.
The one comment about the conference heard most often was that in future, more time should be allocated to open discussion with a workshop kind of atmosphere.
It was the First North American Agroforestry Conference
Ed Hogan, the Chapter's own expert on Agroforestry (he recently obtained the first Master of Science degree specializing in Agroforestry granted by Carleton University, Ottawa) sends us the following conference summary report written by Peter Williams of the University of Guelph:
About 100 researchers, professionals and students from across the US and Canada participated in the first conference on Agroforestry in North America, which was held at the University of Guelph from August 13 to 16, 1989.
The conference consisted of two days of presentations separated by a day of field trips to a number of sites in southern and southwester Ontario to view agroforestry research and operational trials. Related aspects of soil conservation and woodlot management were also covered in the field.
While there have been a number of agroforestry conferences in recent years, they have generally dealt with less-developed countries or tropical situations. The main objective of this meeting was to bring researchers together who have been working in North American agroforestry to discuss their ongoing work and new ideas for research. This objective was achieved with sessions being held in intercropping, marginal lands rehabilitation, extension technology transfer, silvipasture and sustainable agriculture. Other oral and poster presentations were made on windbreaks, not production, and riparian and energy plantations.
The second conference on North American Agroforestry will be held in 1991, hosted by the University of Missouri, Columbia. Proceedings of the Guelph conference can be ordered from Peter Williams, University of Guelph, Department of Environmental Biology, Guelph ON N1G 2W1.
Ed has given the Nuttery a 27-page copy of the abstracts: there are ten articles about nut trees. For more information, contact Ed at Ottawa 521-5772.
The First Record of Carpathians at White Lake
Dr. George Truscott reports that his work with the Carpathian Walnut (Juglans regia) at White Lake, Ontario (45.18° north, 76.31° west) bore fruit this past summer. This is the farthest north record of Carpathians in the Chapter's annals. It raises the real possibility that in the foreseeable future, George may have acclimatised Carpathian seed in sufficient quantities to consider making some available to other growers in the Chapter.
A Nut Growers Sawmill Cooperative
Several of our members have been discussing their periodic need of a portable sawmill since seeing such a machine during the Eastern Ontario Nut Tree Tour this last September. During the tour, Mr. Monette of Carleton Place, a forestry equipment dealer, demonstrated one of the new band saw mills to a very interested audience. A number of people said they could use a mill from time to time, and renting one would be the best solution. However, these machines are not rented, according to Mr. Monette.
Back on the bus, the possibility of forming a cooperative of members to buy one of these $10,000 machines for rotating use was discussed. Any one person might need the mill for a few weeks maybe every other year, so one mill might serve 10-20 users.
How might this cooperative work? The cooperators might divide the capital cost equally, or by some formula based on expected use. Then an annual maintenance fee could be paid, as well as a useage charge based possibly on time used or volume cut. One of the cooperators would provide a home base for the machine, control the schedule, collect the fees and do the required maintenance, in return for some considerations to be determined. Users would pick-up and return the machine to its home base, pay for expendables and do in-field routine servicing (e.g. oil changing and blade sharpening). Provision might be made for new cooperators buying in or old cooperators selling out from time to time.
Readers interested in a sawmill cooperative can contact Alec Jones, Ottawa 828-6459.
The Commercial Association of Nut Growers of Ontario
In a document entitled Forestry Advisory Service and Assistance to Private Landowners in Eastern Ontario handed out at the Kemptville conference, there is mention of The Commercial Association of Nut Growers of Ontario, R.R.1, Wainfleet ON L0S 1V0. The contact is Charles Rhora at (416)899-3508.
A Proposal for Assuring the Future Health of Ontario's Forests
The Ottawa Area Chapter of the Society of Ontario Nut Growers
by Hank Jones and Howard Edel
The real threat of unprecedented rapid climate change over the biosphere puts forests at risk everywhere, especially in the higher latitudes. Extensive forest loss raises the dual spectres of desertification, as in the African Sub-Sahara, most notably in Ethiopia, and catastrophic flooding, reminiscent of Bangladesh. Similar consequences for Ontario may be possible, and would clearly result in a drastic drop in the quality of life for all Ontarians.
If our native tree species can withstand the change, then our forest would likely remain intact. If, on the other hand, they cannot adapt, then the direst consequences of forest loss are almost certain to occur, as the forest dies back.
In the first case, we need do nothing, for our forests would survive by themselves. In the second case, we would have to begin preparing immediately to hold our forests intact throughout the rapid transition to the new climate. In effect, we would have to be able to replace all the trees in the entire forest with non-local species or varieties that would survive during the change and also find the new climate amenable.
As the probability of this rapid climate occurring increases with every new climate study done, we must begin to prepare now to plant a new, successional forest throughout Ontario should it become clear that our local species are failing to survive. Given the long lead times necessary to develop suitable seed sources, and the likelihood that all candidate species everywhere would suffer local decline, we must immediately start developing, across Ontario, the large scale seed sources for a forest that can survive the change intact, and prepare to deliver the new seed in sufficient quantities at that time in the future when we may have to begin planting a new successional forest for Ontario.
It is strongly recommended that the various Ontario governments, provincial, regional and municipal, jointly institute immediately a province-wide acclimatised seed growing program for the long range future, against the contingency that Ontario's native forests may not survive the impending rapid climate change.
Under this proposal, the scientifically-based program would aim to provide in the future sufficient numbers and genetic variety of suitable new tree species seed to enable progressive planting of the successional forests, woods and woodlots throughout the province, in the case that the native forests suffer inexorable decline. The program would also provide for planting the seed it produced. The planting activity would be synchronised with observed native forest decline so as to preserve, and even increase the extent of, the provinces natural forest cover, while simultaneously preserving its overall health. In effect, this proposed program would implement a contingency plan that would enable a human-planted successional forest to be brought into existence across the province, thus protecting our soil, agricultural, wildlife and economic systems so as to assure continuing quality of life as Ontarian's lifestyles change to bring about the sustainable development process that can assure a good life for our children and our children's children, indefinitely for all time.
The program proposed would be similar in concept to the program implementing the Woodlots Improvement Act, involving the private landowner and the government jointly in the long term production of those species of seed pre-adapted to the impending new climate. The proposed name for this program is the Private Lands Acclimatised Seed Management program, PLASM.
Under the PLASM program, agreements with private land owners would be struck that would establish on their land scientifically-monitored acclimatised seed banks in the form of tree plantations of varying sizes, species, composition, soil profiles and microclimates. It is suggest that thousands of individual seed banks would be planted across the province. Due to uncertainty about the specific parameters of the new climate, every scientifically reasonable combinations of species and habitat would be represented. Each seed bank, or plantation, would be of sufficient acreage to be able to produce enough seed after 10-30 years to enable the replanting of the total area of such similar habitat as itself throughout the province, should such replanting in fact become necessary in the future.
Under the proposal, the land owner as steward of the seed bank would contract obligations for its continued well being by signing joint management agreements with the government, similar in intent to the WIA agreements now widespread throughout Ontario. In return, the landowner's property would be protected by law from any activities that could jeopardize the ultimate success of the seed bank, such as expropriation of the land or its conversion to other use, or adjacent deleterious activities such as dump sites etc. that could jeopardise the success of the seed bank. Furthermore, the land owner would retain full rights to all timber and fruit crops as would normally become available from time to time under good woodlot management practises. However, as the seed becomes required for forest replanting, the owner would be obliged to sell same to the government program at fair market value.
This paper has been prepared for the Ottawa Area Chapter of the Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG). The Chapter was formed in 1979, as the first chapter of SONG. Its geographic area of interest takes in eastern Ontario and western Quebec regions. Its membership is comprised of local people interested in growing nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs in the region.
We recognise that under today's climate most nut tree species and varieties find this climate too cold to prosper. In hopes of finding those that could, we prepared a list (attached) of some 77 species and varieties that might grow locally, to experiment with. We were fortunate that, starting in 1979, we have been able to work jointly with the Rideau Valley Conservation Authority (RVCA) to develop a nut grove to demonstrate the growth possibilities of some of the species on our list. Now, we are successfully growing some 30 different kinds of nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs in what has been dubbed the Baxter Nut Grove, a demonstration plantation growing on a five acre site in the Baxter Conservation Area near Kemptville. The list of candidate species and varieties slated for experimentation at Baxter is appended.
We have become aware of acid rain, climate change, ozone depletion and the migration of diseases and insects collectively threatening Ontario's forests and trees, and that forest cover could be lost if native species die back en masse, as now appears to be happening (Quebec's maples are a case in point we believe).
Equally, re recognize that humans have wrought such widespread change in the biosphere that there is (for all intents and purposes) nothing left for us to conserve, so the more difficult tasks of global restoration and regeneration must now be attempted. We feel strongly that trees and forests are the most important element of the biosphere that must be restored and regenerated. Realizing also that the impending change to our climate, specifically a change to a much warmer climate, could threaten the continued existence of today's native species, we are concerned about what trees could take their place so as to prevent the complete loss of our Ontario forests. If we lose our forest, we could face the kinds of desertification and severe flooding that could destroy our entire way of life.
We also note that the kinds of trees we are trying to grow normally range into those geographic areas (e.g. Pennsylvania) which have the climates predicted for this region in 50 to 100 years (that is to say, well within the lifetime of trees we are now planting today, which have life expectancies from 150 to 500 years). We suspect that these more southerly nut trees we are working with could become the viable forest species for Ontario in the future, and may replace the native forests of today. If so, we might be able to retain our extensive forest while gaining the not insubstantial economic benefits of nut trees (most valuable wood as well as edible fruit).
We are worried that the climate change could happen too rapidly for the more southerly species to colonize northward to become the successional forest naturally. Human help may be necessary. While we all strive to stop the forces driving undesirable change, we must also prepare to take remedial action should we not be completely successful in preventing the change. We believe that Ontario should undertake research in earnest to determine which tree species could become the forest of tomorrow, begin growing these species widely but under a coordinated scientifically controlled program, and prepare to plant the acclimatised seed as native forests decline, so that the forest itself remains intact across the province, and that we seek not only to survive the coming change, but even to profit from it.
It is with these thoughts in mind that we put forward for widespread consideration and discussion our proposal for a new Private Lands Acclimatised Seed Management program for Ontario to help prepare us for the future.
For Sale - Local Walnuts & Hickory Nuts
The Nuttery recently received a phone call, followed up by a letter, from Ted Perry of Napanee, who has nuts for sale. Ted has been harvesting black walnuts, butternuts and hickory nuts. He reports that he picked 8 bushels of hickory nuts (shucked) this fall and also sold about 6 bushels to markets for eating already. He still has 1½ bushels left. He also picked 4 bushels of butternuts, but they have also been selling on the market for eating. It is the black walnuts which he is having trouble getting rid of. He has about 4 bushels. He thinks $25 per bushel is likely a good price, but is open to suggestions.
He advises that this is his first year in really picking nuts on a large scale. He has been harvesting nuts for his own use for many years. He says he also tried a tree farm two years ago, but they wanted to trade the nuts for trees, which he is not really interested in. He states that he wants to sell nuts for cash. As far as the Nuttery knows, Ted is the first person in eastern Ontario offering to market locally grown nuts on a large scale. Readers interested in Ted's offer should contact him directly - Ted Perry, 228 1st Ave., Napanee ON K7R 2K8; (613)354-5331.
Cobjon Nut Growers Starter Kits
Cobjon Enterprises Inc. of Ottawa plans to introduce its new Nutgrower starter kits to the public in Eastern Ontario this coming spring. These commercially available kits will be aimed at beginning nut growers, though established growers may find them an easy way to expand into new species.
A range of kits is planned, from small kits for urbanites with room for only a few trees or shrubs, to very large kits for potential commercial growers and nurserymen. There will be intermediate size kits as well, for example, kits of increasing size for suburbanites, hobby farmers and farmers. The smaller kits will be available first. Not all species will be available at first, due to lack of acclimatised seed for some species.
Each packaged kit will contain an amount of acclimatised seed, illustrated information on the species and detailed user instructions. The instructions will help the user in: site selection and preparation; seed stratifying and germinating; seedling transplanting; and follow-on tree and site maintenance.
The instructions will be simplified in the smaller kits, but will be more technical and detailed in the larger kits. Expert follow-up services to kit owners and users are now in the detailed planning stages. These services could be available as soon as this coming summer or fall.
It is expected that prices will start below $10.00 for the smallest kits. The smallest kits will be attractively packaged, making them suitable as gifts to family, friends and neighbours. It is hoped that many will go to children, to teach them the value of trees, specially nut trees, and to give them each their own companion trees that will grow with them throughout their life, trees that they can proudly pass on to their children and their children's children.
For more information on these kits, please write to Cobjon Enterprises Inc., Box 6544 Station J, Ottawa ON K2A 3Y6. Or, call Hank Jones at Ottawa 731-5237.
Provided by ECSONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.