Annual SONG Meeting
More than sixty people gathered at the Arboretum at the University of Guelph on July 31, 1976, for the Annual Meeting of SONG. The moment that the members turned into the spacious Arboretum grounds it was clear that something very special was happening for the University of Guelph. As far as the eye can see there are innumerable plantings of young evergreens, deciduous trees and shrubs. Here and there are nurseries which are used for holding areas for developing trees which are still too tender to move out into the open spaces. Then there is the spacious and graceful Auditorium of futuristic design placed so skillfully as to melt right into the landscape of which it is a part.
Many members came early to take advantage of the time scheduled for the picnic lunch and
informal, neighbourly discussions. Then the focus turned to the business meeting to review the
progress of the last year and also to make plans for the future. The elections for the 1976/77
electoral year produced the following results:
President - E. Grimo
Vice President - J. Gordon
Secretary - P. Easson
Treasurer - R. Hambleton
Editor - D. Campbell
H. Hale, C. Larsson, B. Martin, D. Kernohan
P. Elgie - Chairman
R. Metcalfe, J. Spick
Resolved that SONG have an Auction Meeting in mid-April, 1977, at the Arboretum, University of Guelph. The meeting is to be held on a Friday evening. People who place items for auction are to receive 70% of the proceeds for same and the Treasury of SONG is to receive the other 30%. Carried
Roy Metcalfe reported on the 1976 Heartnut, Persian Walnut etc. distribution program. Roy has received numerous comments about the germination and subsequent development of seedlings from the seed which was mailed out in early spring 1976. Further detailed reports will be published from time-to-time in SONG News. Participants in the seed distribution program are urged to keep in touch with Roy on a regular basis.
Ernie Grimo reported on his activities with indoor bench grafting. A series of colour slides were shown. Ernie is having quite good luck with bench grafting with a wide number of species. Many of the grafted trees are ready for planting out in an orchard setting the same year that the trees are grafted. Ernie emphasizes that the major keys to success are high temperatures (30C) and high humidity during the period immediately following the setting of the grafts.
Ben Holmes gave a very interesting and humorous presentation on the control of rodents in orchards.
The Staff of the Arboretum provided a tour of the grounds and particularly the areas set aside for the collections of nut trees. Several specimens of all of the different species of temperate climate nut trees have been planted. One of the major objectives of the Guelph Arboretum is to determine the hardiness of a wide collection of tree species...including nut trees. The experience at Guelph will provide some very useful information to Ontario Nut Growers over the next several decades.
The Texas NNGA Meeting
More than 120 people from the ranks of the Northern Nut Growers Association braved the long distances and the sub-tropical sun in order to attend the August 15 - 18, 1976, Annual Meeting at Brownwood, Texas. The wealth and variety of experiences which were to greet these hardy NNGA'ers was beyond all expectations. The meeting was located at the Texas State 4-H Centre, an excellent facility in a remote, frontier section of Texas. The location gave you all of the atmosphere of the frontier, pioneering days of Texas but with all the comforts of home I Very comfortable sleeping facilities were available at the 4-H dormitories and the offerings of the cafeteria service represented some of the best which the Deep South has ever produced. Further, the Centre had an outstanding Olympic-size swimming pool which was always as clear and blue as azure crystal. The pool was an excellent contrast in an area which was obviously rather warm. However, the very low humidity of central Texas made it possible for you to feel rather coolish for a few minutes after coming out of the pool even at a temperature of 105°F. There was something for the whole family to do regardless of the time of day.
There were many excellent presentations on nut growing. Naturally there was a heavy emphasis on the growing of pecans. All of the "pioneers" in modern pecan growing such as L. Romberg, 0. Gray and F. Brison were there. What an opportunity to gather first hand information and impressions I Also, there was a wide variety of discussions on filberts, hickories, chestnuts, black walnuts, almonds etc...something to suit the fancy of all nut growers.
One of the extraordinary events of the Texas Meeting was the Tuesday evening fishfry which was hosted by the Brownwood Mafia...a group of highly spirited, public minded Business Men (alias the Brownwood Chamber of Commerce) who want to assure that any visitors to Brownwood...particularly nut growers...are treated royally. The fishfry was acclaimed an enormous success. Never have so many enjoyed so much of a wide variety of Southern-style cuisine.
The traditional Wednesday morning tour started with a viewing of the Leonard Pecan Farm. This is a 1200 acre planting of some of the best pecan varieties available. The trees are planted on a 17 x 35 foot grid and the trees achieve a considerable size of 20 - 30 feet in only six years from planting. When a planting reaches about the 10 year mark and beyond the grower expects an income averaging $1,000.00 per acre! The Pecan Farm also included a 200,000 tree nursery of trees from 2 to 6 feet high. Most of these trees will be lifted and sold during the early months of 1977.
The tour then proceeded to the United States Department of Agriculture Pecan Experiment Station. The Station has 160 acres devoted to the research and development of improved pecan varieties. It is of interest to note that the Brownwood people are trying to develop pecan and hican varieties even for us Northerners. Growers who have outstanding northern trees of pecan or hican are invited to send scion wood to the Research Director: Dr. George Madden, USDA Pecan Field Station, P.O. Box 579, Brownwood TX USA 76801
Those who wish to obtain the annual NNGA report covering all the activities and nut growing
papers presented at the Texas Meeting are invited to send their inquiries to
Northern Nut Growers Association, 4518 Holston Hills Road, Knoxville Tennesee, USA 37914
NOTE: Members of the NNGA receive the annual reports as part of their regular membership services as well as the quarterly newsletter titled "The Nutshell". Annual membership dues are only $8.00...one of the last of the real, old-fashioned bargains!
Fall Meeting and Heartnut Distribution Program
There were gale force winds and pelting rains but the interest in Heartnuts was high! Some forty people assembled at the farm of Elton Papple on October 9, 1976, in order to get a first-hand view of the harvest of Heartnuts. Since the weather was so inclement much of the meeting had to take place indoors. However, those who came equipped with rain gear were able to examine the wide assortment of grafted Heartnut trees at some length. Through the assistance of many enthusiastic members the President of SONG was able to load up his family station wagon with seven bushels of Heartnuts, an ample quantity with which to carry on the Heartnut Distribution Program into the spring of 1977. Most of the Heartnut trees at the Papple farm were heavily loaded with full crops. The regular performance of these trees is a good sign that Heartnuts will do well for growers throughout many sections of Ontario.
The guidelines suggested for the 1976/77 distribution of Heartnut seeds are as follows:
New members are to receive 6 free seeds as an introductory bonus as well as the usual benefits of membership such as the regular mailings of newsletters, attendance at meetings etc.
Current members may request supplies of Heartnut seed at a net cost of 10 seeds for $1.00.
Non-members may request supplies of Heartnut seed at a net cost of 10 seeds for $2.00.
Instructions are included. All requests for Heartnut seed are to be directed to: Ernest Grimo, SONG President, R.R.#3, Niagara-on-the-Lake ON Canada LOS 1JO
Open Letter to Mr. L. E. Hamilton of N. Warren, PA
Dear Mr. Hamilton:
The American chestnut tree which you brought to Forester Donald Dorm's attention is interesting. I can picture the tree growing in your woodland. It stands tall and green in summer while sprouts of many blight killed trees in the vicinity seldom reach two inches in diameter. The sprouts are constantly wilting and yellowing from the girdling of blight. Yet your nine inch diameter tree remains completely free of the blight. There are proportionately few trees which are shielded from the blight long enough to be recognized as forest trees. However, there are many similar trees alive today. They seem immune to the blight. They are few compared to the millions that have succumbed.
A sad note has to be attached to these immune looking trees. All chestnut trees host the blight fungus. This shield type of resistance is temporary. Shield resistance seldom lasts once a tree size of one foot diameter is reached. If your tree resists the blight after it is infected it will be worthy of propagation. Outstanding American chestnut trees become infected and retain their growing tops for more than five years.
Six American chestnut trees which are blighted and retain their tops are being propagated currently. They are a very few. A similar tree near Mercer, Pa., was brought to my attention by Mr. Dorm. On my first visit to this one foot diameter tree four years ago I noticed some traces of blight at rough bark areas along its main trunk. Last fall I visited it again and found the blight to have made very little progress. This is an isolated tree and, not being pollinated, produces only unfilled nuts. It may survive, retaining its top. It is helped in overcoming the blight by not having to expend its energy by producing filled nuts. Many large American chestnut trees are shy bearers due to isolation. The six currently propagated American chestnut trees are a chosen few which have been blighted for years, retain their tops and bear annual crops of filled nuts.
Healthy American chestnut trees produce lumber and food. Their long glossy green leaves in summer and thick reddish branchlets in winter tell that this is basically a productive tree. Under Appalachian Forest conditions American chestnut trees used to outproduce most other species. It seems mutually beneficial to propagate selected American chestnut trees with hopes of overcoming the blight and reforesting.
I have been propagating resistant American chestnut for ten years. The seedlings developed have taught me that either resistance is hard to determine in young trees or it is hard to transmit genetically. A few seedlings show the same slowly spreading blight infections found on suckers growing from resistant trees. Once infected most seedlings girdle quickly and send up new sprouts.
In early October 1975, as chestnuts were dropping, Ernie Grimo and I visited Earl K. Douglass of Red Creek, N.Y. Mr. Douglass has been growing hybrid chestnuts. We saw very good and consistant results coming from his efforts. He had great luck in procuring good Oriental and American breeding stock. In 1946 Mr. Douglass purchased three trees which a nursery called "Manchurian" chestnut. At the same time a farmer gave Mr. Douglassa handful of American chestnuts from a supposedly resistant tree. By 1946 most American chestnuts near Syracuse, N.Y., were dead for fifteen years. About twelve American seedlings grew and were crossed with the Manchurian trees. Today the Manchurian trees are producing crops of large nuts about 1 1/8" diameter. They are unusually sweet at drop time. Being very sweet the nuts are palatable eaten uncured from the bur. The American and Manchurian hybrids produce similar sweet nuts about 1 1/4" diameter. The hybrid trees seem to be larger in most features. They are larger in diameter and height than their half parent Manchurian trees. Their tree form is typically American. Their leaves are long and glossy. Their branchlets are smooth and reddish like American. Unfortunately, they also get blight infection as do American chestnut trees.
Although the Douglass hybrid selections are subject to blight infections, they do not die. The location of the blight infection is not random over each tree but at rough bark in the crotches of large branches. Rough bark on the one foot diameter hybrids is a small amount on the surface bark, occuring only near the ground and at the crotches of the largest branches. The infection destroys a 4" by 10" area of bark at infected crotches before it is itself destroyed. Once the infection reaches the 4" by 10" limit a plug of dead bark separates from the tree and may be lifted up. A patch of wood with skinned over healthy bark at the wound margins is visible underneath.
Infected hybrid selections are not suffering from the blight. The infections occur in an area where the circulation in the tree is least interfered with. Infections are on the trunk side of the crotch and does not travel to the point where the branch springs out. Side grafting has shown that a stock is slowest to rebuild callus tissue in this area because the flow of nutrients is diverted into the scion.
You may wonder at this sequence of infection. At each infection there is a spread of destroying fungus and subsequently the infection terminates. Until the first infection occurs the tree appears to be immune to the blight having grown to six inches completely free of infection. Paul Barnett isolated several organic chemicals from living American chestnut bark. These chemicals inhibited the growth of the blight fungus. If these blight resisting chemicals were unusually concentrated in an American chestnut tree, they could account for the shield resistance found in large American chestnut trees with smooth bark. The follow up work to verify this assumption has not been done. Paul Barnett did this initial work at the University of Tennessee while completing his doctorate.
As rough bark areas form, the maturing tree growing larger, the conditions that help the blight form a colony expand. Blight will grow in dead bark under conditions of warmth, light and moisture. For this reason blight can be assumed to be developing on rough bark of most chestnut trees, not only those that exhibit infection. Once a blight free tree is stricken with injury, drought or overbearing the colony often becomes a visible infection. In American chestnut with shield resistance it may only be necessary that the blight colony be established in dead bark before it is able to move into living bark. In the Douglass hybrids the requirement of the living bark being poorly supplied water and nutrients may have to be met.
After the blight colony is established in the rough bark and becomes an infection by overcoming the resisting chemicals in the adjacent living bark, resistance has to be supplemented or the infection will continue to move, slowly destroying bark. Paul Barnett went on to isolate several organic chemicals found only in infected chestnut bark. These chemicals inhibited the growth of the blight fungus. Reactions in the infected areas of bark manufactured these chemicals, which were previously unnecessary. These supplementing resistive chemicals now help to destroy the blight fungus. The healing of the blight wounds in the Douglass hybrids probably derives from blight resisting chemicals formed at the areas of infection.
Most American chestnut trees have proved to be weak in the production of blight resisting chemicals. Mr. Douglass' plantation consists of the original Manchurian trees, seedling Manchurian trees, and hybrids. The largest trees in both height and diameter are the hybrids. The pure American seedlings died some years ago, being destroyed by blight.
The size of the blight wounds in the Douglass hybrids is ten inches in the direction of sap flow by four inches around the girth of the limb. Infections this size are not mortal to large limbs. If the 10" by 4" wound somehow occured on a small branch the result would probably be a dead branch. If infected it would probably be impossible to detect the resistance of a small Douglass hybrid seedling. A small seedling with the same resistance as a one foot diameter selection would be handicapped by size in overcoming the blight. It might not have sufficient girth for continued circulation and resistive chemical manufacture. The top could be girdled before the newly manufactured chemicals could eliminate the infection.
Rough bark and blight infections occur at the same locations on many outstanding chestnut trees. Assuming blight exists on most areas of rough bark, not only at infections, the most resistant chestnut trees exclude the blight from living tissue. American chestnut trees show a reaction at areas of blight because they do not have the ability to keep colonized blight out of living tissue without reaction products that aid in resisting the blight. Sometimes the infection kills the bark before the blight is eliminated. Discoloration and erratic bark growth point out the site of infection. Observing this struggle we can determine which American chestnut trees are outstanding in their resistance.
Gordon Allen advocates bringing together and breeding outstanding American chestnuts from widely separated regions along the Appalachians. His background in genetics led him to this plan for concentrating resistance. We can tell from the many chemicals involved in the destruction of blight that several genes influence resistance. A number of breeding selections will have to be combined and recombined before resistance in American chestnut will approach immunity. The breeding population should be as varied as the geographic regions which we hope to reforest. It is too much to hope that one single tree can turn the blight epidemic around.
I hope this reply will help you understand the extent of the
blight resistance problem. It is a problem that is hard to comprehend when one sees a single
beautiful tree growing among many poor sprouts. Yet, it is this beautiful and healthy type of
American chestnut tree that is urging us to look for others.
John H. Gordon Jr.
George Hebden Corsan
The chief crusader in the fight to make Canadians nut-conscious in the '40s was George Hebden Corsan of Echo Valley near Islington.
Known as "Canada's Nut Man" though he was a native of New York state, he spent half a century doing pioneer work in proving the commercial possibilities of nut-growing. He wrote for many magazines, including Saturday Evening Post, Forest and Stream, the Family Herald and Weekly Star. He taught in a score of cities all over the continent and lectured on his doctrine of health, long-life (still active at the age of 94) and vegetarianism, including addresses to more than 400 Rotary Clubs in Canada and the United States.
As a young man of 32 studying medicine, he was bitten on the wrist by a copperhead snake, usually considered to be fatal. He was ill for more than two months, pronounced dead at one point, but survived to make his life a crusade for physical fitness.
At the age of 94 he fell head first out of a nut tree, 30 feet broke his neck in two places and recovered to continue his active life for several more years before dying in an accident in Florida where he spent his winters.
He was a friend of Gregory Clark who called him "the only crank and fanatic I have ever known who has a sense of humor, delights in being a crank, rejoices in his fanaticism and knows exactly what each and every person he meets thinks of him."
Clark described his speech as a cross between that of an archbishop and a sergeant-major. "His dignity is that of an aboriginal man. He is lean and straight as a poker."
I remember him pruning nut trees in the nut plantation of an Oxford County grower, Charles Tatham, north of Woodstock. There were five acres of different varieties with a wealth of foliage. Among them moved the tall, spare enthusiast, looking many years less than 90 and moving with the grace and agility of a schoolboy. He was doing an expert job and between trees would pause and talk to the admiring group watching him about nuts, diet, disease prevention, swimming, his bird sanctuaries, his water lilies in Echo Valley and many other things. His pruning costume consisted of khaki pants, red plaid shirt and green coat. His sandy hair looked as if it had never been introduced-to a comb.
He left us to speak at a luncheon in his muddy shoes. With the message he carried, what matter his appearance. His consuming interest was not in himself but what he could do for others.
At that time (1949) on his 25-acre plantation, Echo Valley near Islington, he had 15 different kinds of nut trees and almost 400 varieties. Many of these were the result of his hybridizing experiments over 25 years, aimed at producing bigger and better nuts than those already in existence, with a particular emphasis on hardiness.
For the best return in cropping Corsan recommended the butternut-heartnut cross, the Stranger heartnut and filberts.
His list of nuts which could be grown in southern Quebec, middle Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick included: butternut, butternut-heartnut cross; Japanese walnut (Juglans Sieboldiani); small, sweet, thin-shelled hickories; Manchurian butternut (Juglans Manchurica).
In Corsan's opinion, a nut should have certain qualities to be considered of value. It must have flavor; must be of reasonable size; must be soft in texture and free from woodiness. Crackability was of greater importance than size. The shell should be thin and the meats, preferably plump and large, should come out whole or in halves.
One of his hybrids produced nuts which met all of these requirements and more. He took the Japanese heartnut (Juglans cordiformis), a tree which grew for 1000s of years in North China and Manchuria, and crossed it with a North American relative, the butternut, which was growing as far north aa 100 miles up the Ottawa River. This cross between the male blossom of the butternut and the female blossom of the Japanese heartnut produced a nut which took on the characteristics of the smoother and thinner-shelled heartnut.
This hybrid nut grew in clusters of seven to eleven, and never less than four, instead of the butternut's usual one to three. The trees produced a large crop annually. They were healthier and more attractive than the butternut. One 20-year-old tree at Echo Valley measured 21 inches in diameter in 1947.
Several named types at Echo Valley were David Archibald, named after the plant explorer and author of "The World was my Garden" who claimed it to be the best nut he had ever tasted; and Senator Pepper, after Sen. Claude Pepper, in appreciation among other things of the help he gave to northerners to enable them to enjoy Florida during the winter months. (Corsan had a Florida property where he grew avacadoes, coconuts and bananas. He began a tropical nut experimental station in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Northern Nut Growers' Association.)
The European filbert was one of Corsan's favorites from a commercial standpoint. He used 30 varieties to demonstrate their possibilities.
In growing the filbert, he said, many varieties should be mixed as it is a peculiar nut in that the male blossom must synchronize with the female flower and self-pollenizers are rare. Certain varieties withstand Canadian winters and will pollenize the female flowers of those with no pollen. The seed planted in the fall, soon after gathering, will sprout and grow one foot the first season. The seed can also be planted in early May, about two inches under the ground as a squirrel would cache them.
In two years these seedlings should grow sample nuts and paying crops in four.
The Echo Valley property on Mimico Creek was purchased in 1959 by the Etobicoke Parks System. It can be reached by driving west on Wingrove Hill, coming off Kipling Avenue just one block north of Burnhamthorpe Road.
According to W. A. G. Morsink of the Shade Tree Research Laboratory, University of Toronto,
the property in 1971 had shagbark hickory Carya ovata (Mill) K. Koch; bitternut hickory Carya
cordiformis (Wangh) K. Koch; black walnut Juglans nigra L.; Japanese walnut Juglans
cordiformis Max. (J. sieboldiana Max.); pecan Carya illinoesis (Waugh) K. Koch; mockernut
Carya tomentosa Nut.; big shellbark Carya laciniosa (Michx. F.) Loud.; Turkish hazel Corylus
colurna L.; European hazel Corylus avellana L.; chinquapin Castanea pumila Mill; pawpaw
Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal; persimmon Diospyros virginiana L.; some Douglas firs and a couple
of Ponderosa pines.
(to be continued)
Mrs. Kathryn Lamb, Box 573, Kitchener ON
Virgil Nuttery - a Bold New Venture
There is an old saying that "some are born famous; some earn fame and others have fame thrust upon them." The latter may well be the case with the Society of Ontario Nut Growers. All that SONG has to do is "pick up the ball and run with it."
The Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority has resolved to construct a six acre Nuttery at Virgil, Ontario. The plans call for the planting of as many as 315 of the most outstanding, named cultivars representing all of the nut bearing species which can survive in the Niagara Peninsula. This part of the venture will constitute a series of varietal trials to sort out the very best cultivars for Ontario conditions. Also, the plans call for as many as 500 seedlings from the most select sources to be planted and observed in order to develop the superior cultivars for the next generation of nut growers.
Herein rests the opportunity of the century for SONG. The N.P.C.A. is requesting that SONG provide the advice and expertise concerning what species and varieties should be selected for the Virgil site and how they should be planted and maintained. Furthermore, it is hoped that there will be sufficient volunteers from the SONG ranks to have a group planting session in the Spring of 1977 so that the first plantings will get off to the very best start possible. That's not all! The Conservation Authority wishes to honour the founding planters of the Nuttery with a supper meeting and a wide exposure of publicity in the media throughout Southern Ontario. What an occasion for SONG members! What an opportunity for SONG! It doesn't stop there either. If all works out for the better, the Authority, at an appropriate future time, -will erect a plaque at the Virgil site something to the following effeet..."Herein on the 16th day of April 1977 the Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority came together in co-operation with the Society of Ontario Nut Growers to establish this Nuttery for the benefit of all who are interested in the growing of better nut trees..." And that's not all! The N.P.C.A. is justly famous for the naturalist services it provides for the school children of Ontario's public and secondary schools. The N.P.C.A. can visualize future occasions when many bus loads of enthusiastic youngsters will visit the Nuttery on Field Day occasions to wonder about the bounties of nut trees and to collect some of the precious samples of nuts. What better training ground for the next generation of Nut Growers?
Under the above conditions SONG members would have free access to the Virgil Nuttery as if it were SONG property...making prior arrangements etc. with the Authority for access. It is planned that parking facilities and even some campsites would be provided at the Nuttery so that nut growing enthusiasts may stay right at the plantings for several days at a time to make detailed observations such as dates of pollen shedding and receptivity of the cultivars, dates of ripening of mature nuts etc. This planting can become an inexhaustible source of information for nut growers all across Ontario. No doubt this Nuttery easily could become the most outstanding demonstration planting for the temperate zone in North America and nut growing enthusiasts from far and wide may come to view the performance of the trees.
SONG members may wonder how the Nuttery idea got rolling...it's a long story but here is the short of it. Harold Clement is an Alderman for the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake and also he is an Executive Member of the Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority. Harold has always had an interest in nut trees. On one occasion when Harold was visiting a neighbour of the SONG Editor, he had reason to wonder about all those crazy nut trees which are planted around your Editor's residence. Furthermore, Harold wondered out loud whether your Editor would be willing to make a presentation to the N.P.C.A. Land Use Advisory Board about the possibility of establishing a Nuttery on Authority grounds. The presentation was made and (By Gosh!) it was accepted as an action project by the Advisory Board and eventually by the Executive Committee. This brings us to where the matter rests today, and now, SONG Members, it's up to you.....
Nut Tree Planting Day - Virgil Nuttery
Line 4 Just West of Creek Road (Regional #100), Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake ON
Objective: To make the initial planting at the Virgil Nuttery and get a large proportion of the nut tree cultivars off to a good start. Both "experienced" and apprentice" nut growers are welcome. SONG members will be organized in teams for planting purposes so that the experienced nut growers can guide the activities and also provide an excellent learning situation for members who are new to the art of nut growing. The planting will involve good, old-fashioned, physical work...come prepared with the proper work clothes etc. The News Media will be invited to cover the day's events in detail.
Supper Meeting: Planting teams are to break for supper at 5:00 p.m. The N.P.C.A. will host a supper meeting for all who contribute to the success of the NUT TREE PLANTING DAY. Tentative location for the Supper Meeting ¨¨St. Davids' Lions Club.
The nut tree planting event will be a bit of work, a bit of fun, a festive occasion, a bit of publicity and those who participate will do so in the knowledge that they will leave an indelible mark on the History of Nut Growing in Ontario. Any suggestions or enquiries about the project may be directed to R. V. Campbell, R.R.#1, Niagara-on-the-Lake ON L0S 1J0
Spring Nut Auction - 1977
Mark your 1977 calendars now for the Spring Nut Auction scheduled for Friday Evening, starting at 7:30 p.m., on April 15, 19IL at the Arboretum of the Guelph University, Guelph, Ontario. Members are invited to bring for sale, items such as nursery grade nut trees_oj_all_jcinds, samples of nuts, nut "recipe books, nutty baked goods, handicrafts, woodworkings and related items of horticultural interest. All items submitted for auction should be labelled with a full description and also the name of the owner. Those who submit items will receive 70% of the respective selling prices and the SONG Treasury is to receive the other 30%. Those who attended the 1976 Nut Auction will recall that it was an exciting and memorable event. Remember, there are great numbers of people who are itching to buy some of those intriguing horticultural items which you have for sale.
SONG has been most fortunate to receive membership support from a number of well known Institutions relating to Horticultural activities...the Royal Botanical Gardens, the University of Guelph, the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, the Saugeen Valley Conservation Authority, the Rhododendron Society of Canada, the University of Toronto... Now SONG has received the membership of the Arnold Arboretum Library of Harvard University. The Arnold Arboretum enjoys a rather special position in the History of Horticulture since it is one of the first North American Arboreta to be established (1872) to preserve a wide selection of trees and shrubs in a natural environment. Several of the Arnold staff have published world-renowned reference manuals in Botany such as those of A. Gray and A. Render...The Arboretum has a rather complete collection of nut trees covering the species which will survive in the Massachussetts area....not unlike parts of Ontario. The Arnold has been justly famous for its record of introducing to North America new plant species from countries all around the Globe. One of the most famous of the Arnold explorers was E. H. (Chinese) Wilson who so thoroughly explored the mainland areas of China where, among other things, the Chinese Chestnut thrives. The Arnold Arboretum also publishes, 6 times yearly, an excellent bulletin called, "Arnoldia". This publication may be of considerable interest to SONG members since the bulletins cover many topics of interest in the developing "frontier" areas of horticulture. The bulletins are written in a popular style and are available for a moderate subscription cost ($8.00 U.S. yearly)
In summary SONG finds it rather exhilarating to travel in the company of the several institutions which have seen fit to take out membership in SONG. Welcome Harvard.
Provided by SONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.