SONG News Spring 1994 no. 44
In this Issue...

Sawdust and Shavings

The Canadian Chestnut Council is doing excellent work on the locating of various remaining native chestnuts in Ontario and the propagation of new seedlings to augment this endangered species. They have been working on the protection of existing trees by hypovirulent blight inoculations. Colin McKeen has been travelling all over southern Ontario in the last few years in an attempt to restore some of the big old trees. Progress is encouraging! Do you know of some otherwise "undiscovered" native chestnut trees? Membership in this organization is encouraged at the modest current rate of only $10.00 per head per year. Send checks to: Canadian Chestnut Council, c/o J.C. Fisher, 1332 Suncrest Road, Kingsville, Ontario N9Y 3H3. Cast your vote for the protection of the grand old native nut tree of Ontario!

The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food operates a pest diagnostic clinic out of the University of Guelph. For a modest fee you can find out what's eating you up out there in the back forty. The person to know is Marilyn Dykstra, Pest Diagnostic and Advisory Clinic, OMAF, Box 3650, 95 Stone Road West, Zone 2, Guelph ON N1H 8J7.

Commercial Production Summary
The Grimo Nut Nursery, R.R.#3, Niagara-on-the-Lake ON L0S 1J0
Three Year Production Summary of Selected Sweet Chestnut Cultivars
kg/ha3 year% large
Chestnut cultivar199119921993averagenuts (est. )
Grimo 142Q (Layeroka seedling)383344884333421885
Campbell #1 (Layeroka seedling)393839003100364675
Layeroka409032123157348665
Grimo 112X (Parent unknown)289738751671281490
Grimo 116T (Parent unknown)373319182196261585
Yearly average3271251320842623

Five Year Production Summary of Selected Hazelnut Cultivars (Fresh Weight)
kg/ha5 year
Hazelnut cultivar19891990199119921993 averagenut size
Gellatly 50216803194269483310271886 medium
Laroka tree hazel hybrid383300525001817 medium
Grimo 188P (Petoka x Myoka)5551555111011101333 1133large

1993 Production Summary of Selected
Persian Walnut Cultivars (Fresh Weight)
Persian Walnutkg/haSizeFill
Hansen4712mediumv.good
Metcalfe4075mediumgood
Greenhaven2935largegood
Lake1515largegood
Cobles #22647v. largegood
McKinster1964largegood
Holton2872largegood
Korn2909largegood
Young's Bl588largev.good

Three Year Production Record of a Thirteen
Year Old Bates Heartnut Tree (fresh weight)
CropCanopy
YearWeight (kg)Area (m2)kg/ha
199122.7812800
199233.51003356
199323.91211975

Hazelnut Planting Plan

G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G
G s G G s G G s G G s G

Tree spacing 20'x 20'. Area = 1.2 acres or 0.49 ha
G = grafted or layered hazels like Gellatly 50288 trees.
s = seedling hazel pollinators33 trees.
Total121 trees.

Future Follow up
evaluate seedling for pollinating and/or nut production quality and replace as needed.
Approximate Tree Costs for 1994 Planting Season
88 grafted Gellatly 502 hazels @ $13$1144
33 seedling pollinators @ $5$165
Total tree costs for 0.5 ha$1309 ($1090/A)
We recommend that two or three superior selections be used as the main production trees.

Persian Walnut Planting Plan

 1  2  3  2  4  2  1  2  3  2  4  2
Gl  s G2  s G3  s Gl  s G2  s G3  s
 s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl
Gl  s G2  s G3  s Gl  s G2  s G3  s
 s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl
Gl  s G2  s G3  s Gl  s G2  s G3  s
 s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl
Gl  s G2  s G3  s Gl  s G2  s G3  s
 s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl
Gl  s G2  s G3  s Gl  s G2  s G3  s
 s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl  s Gl

Tree spacing 20' x 20'. Area = 1.2 acres or 0.49 ha.
Gl, G2 and G3 = 3 different grafted cultivars60 trees
s = Persian walnut seedlings60 trees.
Total120 trees.

Future Followup
When trees crowd, remove all Persian walnut seedlings. Good trees can be tree spaded into new planting.
When trees crowd again, remove all "column 2" trees. They may be tree spaded to new sites if the orchard is not too crowded. Gl should be a prolific variety like Hansen or Metcalfe to maximize the early year production.
Approximate Costs for 1994 Planting Season
60 grafted Persian walnut trees @ $15$900
60 seedling Persian walnut trees @ $6$360
Total tree costs for 1.2 acres or 0.5 ha$1260 ($1050/A)

Using seedlings for all column 2 trees and having 30 grafted @ $15 and 90 seedlings @ $6, the cost can be reduced to $990, or $825. per acre.

Chestnut Planting Plan

1  2  3  2  1  2  1  2  3  2  1  2
Q  s Pl  s  Q  s  Q  s Pl  s  Q  s
s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q
Q  s P2  s  Q  s  Q  s P2  s  Q  s
s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q
Q  s P1  s  Q  s  Q  s P1  s  Q  s
s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q
Q  s P2  s  Q  s  Q  s P2  s  Q  s
s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q
Q  s Pl  s  Q  s  Q  s Pl  s  Q  s
s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q  s  Q
Q  s P2  s  Q  s  Q  s P2  s  Q  s

Tree spacing 20'x 20'. Area = 1.2 acres (0.49 ha)
Q - Grafted Grimo 142Q, Layeroka or other pollen sterile types54 trees
P1 & P2 = Two different grafted pollinator cultivars (6 each)12 trees
s = Chestnut seedling trees55 trees.
Total121 trees

Future Followup
When trees crowd remove all "s" trees.
When trees crowd again, remove all "column 2" trees leaving 36 permanent cultivars.
Good trees may be tree spaded into a new planting.
Approximate Tree Costs for 1994 Planting Season
66 grafted production trees and pollinators @ $ 15$990.
55 seedling chestnut trees @ $6$330
Total tree costs for 1.2 acres or 0.5 ha $1320 ($1100/A)

Using seedlings for all column 2 trees and having 36 grafted @ $15 and 85 seedlings @ $6, cost can be reduced to $1050, or $875. per acre.

Heartnut Planting Plan

Gl  h G2  h G3  h Gl  h G2  h G3  h
 h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h
Gl  h G2  h G3  h Gl  h G2  h G3  h
 h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h
Gl  h G2  h G3  h Gl  h G2  h G3  h
 h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h
Gl  h G2  h G3  h Gl  h G2  h G3  h
 h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h
Gl  h G2  h G3  h Gl  h G2  h G3  h
 h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h  h

Tree spacing 20'x 20'. Area = 1.2 acres or 0.49 ha
Gl,G2,G3, 3 different grafted cultivars30 trees.
h = hazelnut seedlings90 trees.
Total120 trees.

Future followup
When heartnuts begin crowding out the hazelnuts, remove hazels.
The removals can be tree spaded into a new planting area where they will return to full production in two or threeyears.
Approximate Costs for 1994 Planting Season
30 grafted heartnut trees @ $15$450
90 seedling hazelnut trees @ $5450
Total tree costs for 1.2 acres or 0.5 ha$900 ($750/A)

We do not recommend heartnut seedling, since cracking quality is too variable. Hazelnut trees begin to bear at an early age, remain compact, and reach full production sooner. The Gellatly seedlings generally ripen earlier than heartnuts, making them a good choice as an interplant nut tree.

Provided by SONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.